Showing posts with label Techniques. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Techniques. Show all posts

Friday, August 12, 2016

Frühe Anleitung für Buchbinderarbeiten gerichtet an Laien | Early Introduction to Bookbinding for Amateurs

Ernst Collins erstes Buch war Buchbinderei für den Hausbedarf [1915], eine Anleitung für Laien und Amateure. Obwohl in England recht verbreitet, könnte diese, nach meinen Recherchen, die erste solche Anleitung die zuerst in deutscher Sprache erschienen ist. Douglas Cockerells Bookbinding and the Care of Books, daß auch an Amateure gerichtet war erschien zuerst 1902 in Übersetzung als Der Bucheinband und die Pflege des Buches, und 1925 in einer neuen Ausgabe mit neuer Einleitung von Maria Lühr. 

So dachte ich wenigstens bis ich So fertige ich allerlei Buchbinderarbeiten von Richard Parthum (Heft 24 in der Selbst ist der Mann Serie, Leipzig, [1911]) fand. Dieses kleine Heft ist wie einige der Englischen an Schulkinder, auch in Sonderschulen... gerichtet. Neben der Broschüre beinhaltet es auch einige andere Projekte wie Kästen für Schreibzeug oder Schmuck um den Eltern Freude zu machen. Es kann in ganzen Umfang unten gelesen werden.

Ernst Collins’s first book published was Buchbinderei für den Hausbedarf [1915], a basic bookbinding manual specifically for amateurs. Based on a review of the literature, this is perhaps one of the first such manual written originally in German. Douglas Cockerell’s Bookbinding and the Care of Books first appeared in German as Der Bucheinband und die Pflege des Buches in 1902, with a 1925 edition with new introduction by Maria Lühr.

That's at least what I thought until I discovered So fertige ich allerlei Buchbinderarbeiten by Richard Parthum (Pamphlet 24 in the Selbst ist der Mann series, Leipzig [1911]). This small pamphlet is like many of its English counterparts directed at school children, including those in "special schools." Illustrations and instructions are minimal, but give a good sense of the projects that include portfolios and a variety of boxes for writing implements or jewelry designed to please the parents. The full pamphlet can be viewed at the bottom.

Umschlag | Cover

Mappe mit "Frosch" | Portfolio with expandable pocket

Ziehmappe mit Gestaltingsideen für die Decke | Portfolio with ideas for cover design

Wer kennt noch mehr? | Who knows of more?

Hier die ganze Broschüre zum Lesen...
Here the whole pamphlet for reading



Thursday, March 19, 2015

"Spring" Binding Hath Sprung - Zum Frühling

The ground in Syracuse (NY) still has snow and the temperatures are still unseasonably cold from time to time, BUT the Sun crosses the Equator tomorrow and the first day of spring is here. The days are getting longer, our clocks "sprung" forward in the US on the 8th, so why not "celebrate" one of my favorite binding structures, the springback.

Hier in Syracuse, NY, liegt noch Schnee, die Temperaturen sind noch gelegentlich niedriger als normal, ABER die Sonne überquert den Equator morgen und der Frühling ist hier! Die Tage werden länger und wir haben in den USA am 8. auf Sommerzeit umgestellt. Also, warum nicht den Frühling mit dem Sprungrücken feiern? (im Englischen ein "gutes" Wortspiel...)



Above the logo for the first Bonefolder Bind-O-Rama (2004) that was featured on the cover of the Bonefolder. While published in the fall, the Bonefolder was announced early in the spring.

Oben, das Logo für das erste  Bind-O-Rama des Bonefolder von 2004. Das Heft kam im Herbst des Jahres zum ersten Mal heraus, wurde aber im Frühling angekündigt.


The Bonefolder, Vol 1, no. 1, Fall 2004

And from the Bind-O-Rama, this miniature springback by Roberta Lavadour.
“A Counting” – English-style springback, leather cover with double straight bands laced with deer vellum. 600 pages of 9 lb. Canary paper with painted edges. Inscription notes the multiplier for each of the 300 page spreads needed to equal the number of dead and wounded American soldiers and Iraqi civilians since March 2003. 7.5 x 7 x 2.5 cm. Bound 2004.

The mechanics of this springback reflect Richard Bakers demonstration at the Guild of Book Workers Seminar on Standards of Excellence in Hand Bookbinding in Denver CO, with a few references to Vaughans 1929 classic, Modern Bookbinding. The new purpose of this springback is to pop up the pop-up. The book measures 5.5 inches by 6.5 inches by 1.5 inches. Bound 2004.

Historical ledger bindings in an archive...


The structure is most common to the German and English binding traditions and has seen increased interest in the US since the early 2000s with articles and presentations largely by Peter D. Verheyen, Donia Conn, Richard Baker, and Karen Hanmer.

Sprungrücken gibt es am Häufigsten in der deutschen und englischen Buchbindertradition, und hat in den USA aber Anfang der 2000er neue Aufmerksamkeit gesehen in Aufsätzen, Vorführungen, und Kursen, hauptsächlich durch  Peter D. Verheyen, Donia Conn, Richard Baker, und Karen Hanmer.

Poster for the German tradition by Verheyen and Conn based on materials for our article in The New Bookbinder.
Guild of Book Workers Standards Friday Forum poster session, Minneapolis, MN, 2002

Richard Baker "hammering over" the headcap for the English-style.
Guild of Book Workers' Standards, Denver, CO 2003.
Cut-away model of German springback
Schnittmodell vom deutschen Sprungrücken

Interactive cut-away diagram (auf Englisch) here


These tutorials, with bibliographies can be found at | Anleitungen auf Englisch gibts hier:
  • The Springback: Instructions in the German tradition for a binding designed for account, ledger, and guest books. By Peter D. Verheyen and Donia Conn.
  • The Springback: Instructions in the English tradition for a binding designed for account, ledger, and guest books. By Peter D. Verheyen.
The structure is also described in all the leading bookbinding manuals published in German and in England.

Die Einbandart ist in allen gängigen Fachbüchern zu finden, also Henningsen, Lüers, Moessner,Wiese, Zahn...

[Edit 28 April, 2015: Nice article from West Dean Conservation in the UK on a student's first time making an English style springback | Schöner Aufsatz von einem West Dean Conservation Studentin in der UK: Springback Binding with Richard Nichols by Lucy Cokes]

video
Donia Conn cutting the spine on the German style
Rücken Ende absägen beim deutschen Sprungrücken


What's the attraction to this arcane structure that has long since been replaced by Microsoft Excel and now mostly sees use for guest books? It's the energetic springing flat of the pages as the book is opened that seem to give it wings.

Warum die Aufmerksamkeit für diese ausgestorbene Einbandart die vielleicht noch für Gästebücher anwendung sieht? Es ist das kraftvolle Öffnen und die flach-liegenden Seiten die dem Einband Flügel verleihen...

At left, "Not possible...," at right, "whoa! Wow!"
"As seen at the 1948 journeyman's exam in Cologne"
Sprungrücken, Das Falzbein, 1948, pg 96


So, let's spring into spring with renewed energy!
Also, ab in den Frühling mit erneuter Energie... !

Saturday, October 18, 2014

Designing Spines

In designing bookbindings, the spine is one of the defining characteristics because it is often integral to the structure and what is most visible of the book when shelved. Below a series of images relating to the design of spines in chronological order starting with Paul Adam's 1898 Die praktischen Arbeiten des Buchbinders (Practical Bookbinding, 1903, as it was titled in the English edition). The captions for the images are often pedantically charming.

"Simple spines"
Paul Adam (1898),  Die praktischen Arbeiten des Buchbinders

Only use German (fraktur) faces for titles if the book is printed using fraktur,
and Roman faces if the book is printed in Roman.
In other words, don't mix typefaces.
Paul Adam (1898), Die praktischen Arbeiten des Buchbinders

The "better" 1/4 linen binding. The caption goes on to say that the proportions are to be seen as fixed
stadards with linen from spine and corners each covering 1/3 the width of the board...
The top part of the image shows the appropriate rounding for spine/foredge.
Paul Kersten (1909), Die Buchbinderei und das Zeichnen des Buchbinders
für Fortbildings und  Handwerker-schulen
.

The spines of "better" 1/4 linen bindings
Paul Kersten (1909), Die Buchbinderei und das Zeichnen des Buchbinders
für Fortbildings und  Handwerker-schulen
.

The spines of "better" 1/4 leather "extra" bindings with laced-on boards.
Paul Kersten (1909), Die Buchbinderei und das Zeichnen des Buchbinders für Fortbildings und  Handwerker-schulen.

Colors: This diagram shows how colors should be selected for binding designs,
with the lower diagrams  depicting (from top to bottom) the spine, sides, label, and top edge decoration.
Thorwald Henningsen (1935), Vorlagen für Buchbinder

The design of the bindings would then be depicted as above.
Thorwald Henningsen (1935), Vorlagen für Buchbinder

During my apprenticeship we had kept "spines" like these made of binders board in the appropriate thickness with swatches of the covering materials for spine and sides glued on including stamping the title with the selected face, size, and color foil at the appropriate height, measured from the bottom. As most of day-to-day work was "library binding," all done by hand, this would ensure that the title runs would be uniform. If a title changed size, measure title placement from bottom would ensure that it was still on the same level when on the shelf.What makes This book interesting is that the text is tri-lingual, German, French, and Italian as the book was designed for trades schools in Switzerland.

"Hand tooling" of the spine. The diagrams work the binder from a sketch to design,
show how the spine should be devided, title placement and spacing as well as suggestions for design.
Fritz Wiese (1937), Werkzeichnen Für Buchbinder

Originally published in German in 1983, this book continues the tradition of depicting spines and
book designs in this way. Like the German original, the captions are charmingly pedantic. Zeier wrote this
book for amateurs, one of the few in German at the time to do so, but his roots as a teacher in trade and design schools
are front and center.
Franz Zeier (1990), Books, Boxes, and Portfolios.

Franz Zeier (1990), Books, Boxes, and Portfolios.

Smitten by this book when I first bought it in German back in 1984, I have given a copy of the English edition to just about every one of my students and interns as I feel it is the best introduction to the German case binding in the English language, one that will allow those without full binderies to learn to construct a variety of bindings and other structures.

Tuesday, June 24, 2014

Pan


Just completed the long-overdue binding on Eight Wood Engravings On A Theme Of Pan (Northampton: Pennyroyal Press, 1980) with wood engravings by Barry Moser. A delightful well-proportioned smallish book printed in an edition of 130 copies. The text is made up of six epigrams from the Anthologia Graeca, which Moser loosely translates in his afterword. Set in Goudy Greek (12pt. to 36pt.) in 3 or 4 colors, and punctuated with original brush calligraphy by Betse Curtis. Printed on handmade Japanese Etching paper; engravings on sheets of Sekishu.

From the description of this book at The Veatchs, Arts of the Book.



Description: Dorfner/de Gonet "open joint" style binding. Text sewn on two reinforced leather tapes; bottom and fore-edge left uncut with graphite top edge; black leather endband; spine covered in snake-skin; "O'Malley Crackle" flyleaves; boards covered in Pergamena goat vellum with design taken from illustrations underneath; "O'Malley Crackle" doublures and roundels on front of boards. Housed in Layered Indigo Night semi-soft slipcase.


Cave Paper "O'Malley Crackle" flyleaves and doublures.

Semi-soft slipcase of Cave Paper "Layered Indigo Night" with gold stamped snake-skin label.


Overall showing snake-skin spine, "O'Malley Crackle" roundels,
with design taken from illustrations underneath Pergamena goat vellum.

Sunday, June 8, 2014

Millimeter Binding (Edelpappband)

The German-style millimeter binding (Edelpappband) is the "ennobled" version of the paper-covered case binding and should not be confused with the equally elegant but fundamentally different Danish millimeter binding (link to John Hyltoft: Danish Millimeter Binding from GBW Standards 1995). I described the case-bound German version of the millimeter binding in The Bonefolder, Volume 1, No. 2, Spring 2005, and Renate Mesmer the "in boards" version at the GBW Standards in 2005.

Ernst Collin discussed aspects of this binding on "Wednesday" in his Pressbengel, link to the English Bone Folder at left.

See also the 2005 Bonefolder Edelpappband / “Millimeter” Binding Bind-O-Rama where readers explored this structure, many for the first time.

Below are some maquettes I made to illustrate the covering stages for the version with the narrow leather edge along top and bottom (or fore-edges) and the version with invisible corners.



Below a diagram showing some of the design variants possible.



Overall images of the three books above

The Enchiridon of Epictetus, Press Intermezzo, 1997.

Edelpappband / millimeter binding: Endpapers of red Roma paper; top edge gilt; endband of pastepaper around thread core, vellum trim along top and bottom edges; covered in hand-made pastepaper; title in gold on front cover. 16.5 x 12 x 1cm. Bound 2005.


Saturday Night, 1953 / The Elements, Angorfa Press, 1998.

Edelpappband / millimeter binding: Sewn on 3 ramie tapes; plain endsheets same as text; solid graphite edges; red eel-skin leather endbands; "millimeter / edelpappband" case covered in original pastepaper by binder with blue eel-skin leather trim at head, tail, and along foreedges; title stamped in black on spine. 18 x 13 x .7cm. Bound 2003. The book, in the "Cased Binding" category, was awarded the Harmatan Leather Award for Forwarding in the Society of Bookbinders' 2003 Bookbinding Competition.


Fritz and Trudi Eberhardt, Rules for Bookbinders, The Boss Dog Press, 2003.

Edelpappband / millimeter binding: Endpapers same as text; top edge in graphite and burnished; dark red leather endband around thread core; vellum trim at head/tail caps with invisible corners; covered in handmade pastepaper; title in graphite on front cover. Soft “Ascona-style” slipcase covered in paper to match book with title in graphite on spine. 18 x 12.5 x 1cm. Bound 2005.
Other examples can be seen among the bindings here.

Sunday, February 16, 2014

Something Fishy - Fish Leather for Binding

In 1919, after the end of World War I, there were severe shortages and civil unrest in Germany. This situation repeated itself after World War II. These shortages led to a high level of experimentation with ersatz (replacement/alternative) materials such as straw for paper and board, spun paper, ..., silk instead of linen for sewing thread, but also colored straw for inlays (Strohintarsien). Ernst Collin and others wrote articles on the subject in such periodicals as the Archiv für Buchgewerbe, the Buchbinderlehrling, and the Allgemeiner Anzeiger für Buchbindereien. This post is about one of those "ersatz" materials, fish leather.

In the Archiv für Buchgewerbe ( Vol. 56, 1919) the bookbinder Franz Martini of Charlottenburg (Berlin) recounted a war experience in which he saw Cod skins that had been pulled off the fish in a field kitchen in Belgium and discarded. Drawing on his experiences at the bindery of Lüderitz and Bauer, he examined the skins to ensure there were now cuts/tears, then carefully removed the scales and made parchment from them, using them to bind various such as military journals. Based on these experiments he deemed the fish parchment superior to calf or sheep for durability and working properties such as the ability to mold over raised cords without wrinkling.

Martini had the leather tested at the national testing center on the recommendation of Paul Kersten (Director of the School for Artistic Bookbinding in Berlin) and the Director of Royal Library of Berlin. The results of this testing were impressive, especially in terms of fold and tear strength where the fish parchment easily reached 50,000 double folds without damage.

Material: Fish skin (untanned), sheep parchment, calf parchment
Mittlere Reißlänge in mm = average breaking length in mm
Mittlere Dehnung in % = average stretching in %
Resistance to folding.


After these tests Martini also developed a way to tan these fish skins to leather, also taking out a "utility model" (Nr. 674 741), a more limited form of patent, on this invention. Below some images of bindings he  created with these tanned skins from the Archiv für Buchgewerbe. Obviously, fish skins are most suited to half/quarter bindings due to their shape... Images from Archiv für Buchgewerbe ( Vol. 56, 1919).


Half-leather extra binding with leather onlay and original pastepaper

Half-leather extra binding with leather onlay and original pastepaper


In the 1934 Allgemeiner Anzeiger für Buchbindereien (Vol 49, Nr 19), Ernst Collin wrote an article titled Bucheinbände aus Fischhaut (Bookbindings in Fishleather) that described the process in more detail, illustrated with photographs by Ernst. Shown is the same Franz Martini as mentioned above demonstrating how to remove the skin from the fish and prepare it. Martini has been able to demonstrate the effectiveness of tanning fish on a variety of species including cod, halibut, shark, eel, and others. Ernst points out that one of the reasons fish leather is not common is that most consumers prefer to cook the fish with the skin on - he suggests wrapping in gauze for the same effect, the cooking method is not mentioned.

Click to enlarge.

The article recaps an earlier article by Paul Kersten from the  1917 (Nr 7) Allgemeiner Anzeiger für Buchbindereien which was similar to the 1919 article mentioned above. Ernst's article also states that Martini's attempt to patent the process failed as it was not unique enough and had been described in earlier publications.

Ernst concludes by praising this material and encouraging the German fisheries to take advantage of the need for durable yet affordable native materials to help contribute to sustainability and German economic independence.

The 1938 volume of the Buchbinderlehrling, a periodical for apprentices, describes the manufacture of fish leather in the context of the 4-year plan to make Germany independent of imports, and increased rationing in advance of the looming war...

The fish were carefully skinned and then tanned in rotating drums using a vegetable tannage -  summach, dividivi, or willow. Unfortunately the tannins in most domestic plants were not effective enough. To dye the skins, aniline dyes and pigments (for darker colors) were used. Finally, the leather is pressed and glazed. Overall, these processes are identical to tanning other animal skins with an equivalent quality possible. Fish leather retains its flexibility and softness. It is also very resistant to tearing.

The article concludes by reminding the upcoming bookbinders that this is a material that they will need to become comfortable with, just as all other binding materials.

A final article on the subject from the 1946 (Nr 12) issue of the Allgemeiner Anzeiger für Buchbindereien leads with "Fish Leather Developed by Bookbinder," recaps the articles mentioned above, and concludes by saying fish leather has established itself as a binding (and other leather trades) material, but no one remembers that a bookbinder first developed it.

Images of fish leathers below from my leather "stores." Of these the eel is the thinnest and smoothest by far, and only really useable on millimeter bindings, on small/light books, or for onlays. Almost no paring is required for use.

The other fish leathers, trout, salmon, cod, and carp are available glazed and suede. Paring is possible, but what I've found most effective is pasting out the back for dimensional stability and letting it dry on Mylar. Peel off and sand (a "micro" belt sander is great) with a little edge-paring. These leathers can easily be used as a structural element of the binding, just as any other leather - they're not just for onlays...


Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge


The dogfish/shark and stingray skins are very difficult to pare, the former being very rubbery - kills Scharfix blades, fast.  The stingray is very hard and best used as an in/onlay. Cutting with a knife also very difficult. Probably the reason I haven't used it yet. Abigail Bainbridge wrote a great description of working with shagreen for the West Dean College Current Projects blog.


Click to enlarge


Below examples of bindings using fish leather that I have made. Click image to enlarge.


On Søren Kierkegaard by Edward F. Mooney

Bound in salmon leather on spine with stained birch veneer covered boards; endpapers of handmade Roma paper; graphite top edge; leather endbands; title stamped in gold on front cover with goat leather onlays. Enclosed is cloth-covered slipcase. Bound 2013.

The Book of Origins – Le Livre des Origines, André Ricard, 2004

Modified Bradel binding (Gebrochener Rücken); textblock sewn on three slips of Cave Paper brown walnut dyed paper; endpapers of Cave Paper brown walnut dyed paper; gilt top edge; sewn silk endbands; Bradel case with 1/4 veined calf vellum spine and undyed goatskin sides; slips laced through at joint; decor of codfish leather onlay and blind tooling.
22.5 x 14.5 x 2.5 cm. Bound 2005. Collection of Karen Hanmer.

Gaylord Schanilec and Clarke Garry, Mayflies of the Driftless Region, Midnight Paper Sales Press, 2005

“Open joint” binding; sewn on 3 brown salmon leather slips; flyleaves and doublures of Cave Paper “layered indigo day” paper; graphite top edge; rolled endbands brown salmon leather; spine covered in gray salmon leather; boards covered in full vellum with printed illustrations from text below; salmon leather slips attached to boards and framed with decorative weathered wood veneer; tied mayfly attached to front board. 26.5 x 19 x 2 cm. Bound 2013.

Ladislav Hanka, Remembering Jan Sobota, 2013

Modified Bradel binding (Gebrochener Rücken); layered Indigo Night Cave Paper endpapers; sewn link stitch on 5 reinforced slips of same paper as ends; endbands of endpaper paper around core; spine covered in brown Kangaroo with cutouts to reveal slips and sewing; boards covered in brown tie-dyed Pergamena deer parchment; onlays of suede Salmon leather with fishing fly mounted into lacuna in parchment; title stamped in gold on front board. 33 x 25.4 x 1 cm.Bound 2013.


Saturday, November 30, 2013

Mayflies of the Driftless Region - Done

Heading into the home stretch thanks to a week off at home. Plenty of procrastination, a speciality, but also good work on Mayflies and another binding...

First the open joint (offener Falz) where the only board attachment to the textblock is via the tapes, in this case a laminate of vellum and fish leather. The gray elements are stained birch veneer.



Then, an overview with boards attached, exterior and interior.



Attaching the final design elements to the middle of the fore-edge.

Attaching the tied mayfly to front board

Overall

Mayfly detail

Final steps, detail, touch-up where needed, make box!

To the Dorfner/de Gonet style (bottom of first post in series), I like it and have another binding using it in the works. Even though this is a smallish to average sized book, the tapes/slips must be flexible when opening cover, yet rigid so textblock does not sag. Nice to be able to work covers and textblock separately and then join.. I'm sure I'll have other thoughts as I give it the look(s) over...