Showing posts with label fish leather. Show all posts
Showing posts with label fish leather. Show all posts

Monday, August 5, 2019

A Fish Skin Rug

I was recently made aware of Studio Nienke Hoogvliet, "a design studio for material research, experimental and conceptual design based in The Hague, The Netherlands. The studio was founded in 2013 with a focus on "raising awareness of social and environmental problems in the textile, leather and food industry."

In her project SEA ME she researches how seaweed can contribute to a more sustainable textile industry. RE-SEA ME focuses on the applications of fish skin. She also published a book describing her method of preparing skins without chemicals. Based on the video this looks like she is making parchment, a topic dear to my heart. The book costs $75 including shipping to the US. Can't wait to get my copy and wish I had a rug like she made. Perhaps I need to make my own.

RE-SEA ME is the continuation of SEA ME. To show the duality between plastic waste in the oceans and the sustainable materials the oceans have to offer, Nienke continued her search for materials out of the sea. She discovered that fish skins are a waste product of the fishing industry, while you can also make them into beautiful leather.

She went to fish shops to collect their waste and discovered a way of tanning the skins without any chemicals. By using an old technique, that requires a lot of manual labour, she created a strong, sustainable and beautiful material that can be used like regular leather. To show the abilities of the leather, Nienke designed a small stool with fish leather seating. To continue the SEA ME collection, she also designed a conceptual rug where the fish leather is sown into a discarded fishing net.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Bookbinder Barbie Visits Syracuse

So, @BookbinderBarbie is a real thing. In some ways she is becoming an "influencer" and a meme for the bookbinding and book arts set online, at least I hope she will become. We could all use a lighthearted ambassador that makes what we do accessible to the "masses," at least I think so.

She was started by North Bennet Street School Bookbinding (NBSS) students a year ago, and has been sharing her experiences in that program and during her travels ever since. This summer she is visiting binders, conservators, printers, artists, and many others throughout the US, before heading back to start her second year at NBSS. Think of it as a series of intense, short-term internships.

Bookbinderbarbie on Instagram

I was fortunate to have her visit this past week, and we had some great experiences in a few short days. She got here late because Air USPS "lost her," then decompressed for an evening by looking at some books including one about her in a past life, and playing with the trains. Next day we headed across Syracuse to see some sights and visit Boxcar Press and the great people there. That evening, I taught her the stiffened paper binding (Steifbroschure) and we made a 1/4 fish leather binding with sides covered in hand printed cloth made by an artist in Venice. This was a prelude to making her own parchment from salmon the next day. That next day she got to go to work with me, and while I was doing my thing with spreadsheets (she wasn't interested) she received a personal tour of Syracuse University Libraries' amazing Plastics Collection from Courtney, the curator. She was an instant fan!

After we got home it was time to make that parchment. Below a few photos, embedded posts from with links to the others from Syracuse. To see all her adventures, you know you want to, scroll through her Insta feed, better yet follow for there is much more to come.

Richard Minsky Nice to see Barbara Slate's Marvel Barbie comic.
It's been 25 years since Barbie taught at the Center for Book Arts.
Looks like a new bookbinder Barbie may take that position ❣️
Barbie #43, July, 1994.

Making a 1/4 fishskin case binding with printed cloth sides.
Barbie came with her own tools.

The stiffened paper binding (Steifbroschure)
More under

Syracuse's own Niagara Mohawk building, an art deco gem.

I got to go shopping for a delicious meal in advance of Barbie's visit. Yum!

Stretching out the salmon parchment.

Inspecting the stretched out skin.

A full step-by-step description of the process can be
found under

Finally, looking at some books, here the Boss Dog Press edition
of Ernst Collin's Pressbengel that was translated
by Peter D. Verheyen as The Bone Folder. 
Download the text laid out for binding in the left sidebar,
make some fish parchment, and bind your own copy.
Make sure to share pictures.

Links to all the posts from Syracuse:

I can't wait to see what Barbie does next and how she grows as an emerging professional. Perhaps she'll tell her story in a journal article or blog post somewhere. I know I had a wonderful time hosting her, and know all the others she visited did as well. What a great way to spend the summer. Made me feel young again.

Related, perhaps other programs and individual book artists could adopt this concept with their own Avatars, and then they could all converse and grow together as practicing binders and book arts professionals.

Oh, Twitter seems to be enjoying her, too.

Some tweet reactions!

Friday, May 18, 2018

More Fish Parchment | Mehr Fisch Pergament

After making the parchment from Salmon a year ago, I got to do it again.... Here a more detailed "tutorial" than the last time. Now, go out and make your own.

Nachdem ich aus Lachshaut vor einem Jahr Pergament gemacht habe durfte ich es wieder... Hier eine mehr detaillierte Anleitung als beim letzten Mal. Jetzt macht eure eigene. 

My wife went shopping and brought fish home - I got the skin...
Meine Frau ging einkaufen und brachte Fisch nach Hause - die Haut war für mich

The skins before freezing (top, lane snapper & bottom, sea bass)
Die Häute vor dem Einfrieren (oben, Schnapper & unten, Wolfbarsch)

Fischsicle - Time to get started by thawing
Fisch am Stiel - Angefangen wird mit dem Austauen

Next steps | Nächste Vorgänge

Rinsing fish skin in cold water and unscented dish detergent to remove oils... I left it overnight in the refrigerator, then rinsed in cold water, and repeated several times over the course of 2 days.

Die Häute wurden in kaltem Wasser mit unparfümierten Geschirrspülmittel gewaschen um Öle zu entfernen... Ich ließ es über Nacht im Kühlschrank, spülte mit viel kaltem Wasser und wiederholte das Ganze 2 Tage.

After soaking in the dish detergent, I scrape the remaining bits of flesh off of the skin. What remains will be scraped off when the skins are dry.

Nach dem Geschirrspülmittel habe ich Fleischreste mit einem stumpfen Scalpel vorsichtig abgekratzt. Was danach bleibt wird nach dem Spannen und Trocknen abgekratzt.

After scraping, the skin is soaked in the refrigerator overnight in a slurry of cold water and kaolin to absorb odors. This is repeated again.

Nach dem abkratzen der Fleischreste wurde die Haut im Kühlschrank über Nacht in einem Flüssigschlamm aus kaltem Wasser und Kaolin (Porzellanerde) getränkt um Geruche aufzusaugen. Dieses habe ich wiederholt.

The skins stretched out using tacks stuck into foam core board. There is a layer of Hollytex and folder stock between the fish and the foam core.

Die Häute werden mit Reißzwecken auf eine Hartschaumplatte gespannt. Zwischen Haut und Hartschaum sind noch ein Stück Hollytex und dünne Pappe.

The stretched skins | Die gespannten Häute

The stretched skins | Die gespannten Häute

The stretched skins | Die gespannten Häute

In the final step, the skins are scraped down from the the verso to remove the last vestiges of flesh. I'll also degrease by wiping with denatured alcohol or acetone.

Im letzten Arbeitsgang müssen die letzten Fleischreste entfernt werden. Ich werde auch mit Alkohol oder Acetone entfetten.

Fleshy fibers | Fleischliche Faser

The "scale" side | Die Schuppenseite
The colors on the colorful fish faded
Die Farben an dem buten Fisch sind verblasst

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Noch mehr zum Fisch | More Fishiness

Beim stöbern in meiner Fachliteratur, vor allem meiner neuen Heftlade (Herausgegeben von Ernst Collin für den Jakob-Krause-Bund), fand ich einen Aufsatz von Paul Kersten, "Kurioses Einbandmaterial," (Bd. 1, Nr. 1, 1922 (9-13). In diesem besprach Kersten kurz die vielen im Allgemeinen unbekannte Materialien tierischen Ursprungs die Buchbinder verwenden. Unter diesen war auch Fisch. Als erstes erwähnte Kersten den Aal den wir zuerst von "Fips" kennen lernten. Kersten zitierte Zeidler eines der frühsten deutschen Fachbücher zur Buchbinderei.

While leafing through my reference collection, in particular my new copy of the Heftlade (published by Ernst Collin for the Jakob-Krause-Bund), I found an article in German by Paul Kersten about "Curious Binding Materials,"  (Vol. 1, Nr., 1, 1922 (9-13) in which Kersten discussed a number of what he considered highly unusual and large unknown animal-based materials binders might use. Among these was also fish. Kersten began his mention of fish starting with eel skin, a material we first learned about from "Fips."

"Fips mit seiner Aalhaut | "Fips" with his eel skins

Johann Gottfried Zeidlers Buchbinder-Philosophie Oder Einleitung In die Buchbinder Kunst (1708) beginnt Ende der Seite 121 mit der Beschreibung von Aal als Werkstoff mit grosser Festigkeit der sich auch sehr leicht zubereiten läßt – Abziehen, aufspannen, trockenen, und fertig. Halt so wie "Fips" es machte (und ohne Entfettung). Wegen der größe der Haut (schmal und lang) lassen sich damit aber nur kleiner Bücher binden... Ein in Aalhaut gebundenes Buch konnte Kersten auch nicht finden.

In writing about eel, Kersten cites Johann Gottfried Zeidlers Buchbinder-Philosophie Oder Einleitung In die Buchbinder Kunst (1708), one of the earliest German binding manuals. In that, beginning on page 121, Zeidler describes the strength of the skin, and its ease of preparation - pull off the skin, stake out, and let dry, just like "Fips" did, but without degreasing. Because of the size of eel (long and narrow) it was really only suited for smaller books. Kersten also mentions that he has never seen a book bound in eel skin.

Kersten zitiert Zeidler zur Aalhaut | Kersten quotes Zeidler on eel skin.
Kersten beschreibt auch andere Fischarten, unter denen Kabeljau, daß er mit Kalbpergament vergleicht, "das haltbarste aller Einband-Materialien ist."

Kersten also mentions other kinds of fish, among them cod, that he compares with calf vellum, the most durable of all binding materials.

Kersten über Kabeljau | Kersten on cod

Saturday, November 25, 2017

Bone Folder Design Prototypes

While waiting for the Boss Dog Press to complete the printing of the fine press edition of my translation of Ernst Collin's Der Pressbengel (as The Bone Folder), I decided to experiment with some design ideas on the sheets I offer for download. While the format of these is 8.5" x 11" folded in half, the fine press edition will have a trim size of 9" x 12."

N.b. The Boss Dog's printing is almost complete, and will have been more than worth the wait. Like a fine wine or beer.

Binding 1, Dorfner/de Gonet style:

The design is a play on the question and answer dialog of the text. Sewing supports are vellum back with pared leather to give a more 3-dimension effect. Leather on spine is natural Niger leather and on boards is Harmatan with chagrin for the low relief onlays.

Top edge in graphite with hand sewn endbands. The image also shows the open joint structure of the Dorfner/de Gonet style

Collaged doublures and flyleaves with dilute colored paste washes. Base of the collage is Collin's original text in German, with onlays from articles and books on topics referenced in the book that were written by Collin.
I was inspired to try this by some of the work of Mark Cockram, but mine pale in comparison... Still, I think they work here.

Binding 2, Danish millimeter style:

The Danish millimeter is best described in English by John Hyltoft who presented on it at the Guild of Book Workers 1995 Standards conference (starts on PDF page 33). See his presentation handout here.

Spine covered in salmon parchment with pastepaper boards, invisible salmon parchment corners.
I describe making the salmon parchment here. It was very nice to work with and I still have lots...

Pastepaper doublures and flyleaves that continue the dark to light progression from the cover.
Top edge in graphite with endbands of pastepaper wrapped around a thread core.

Detail of salmon parchment and pastepaper at spine.

If anyone who downloaded the sheets would like to share their binding, send me an email using the "contact" link at top right. I'd love see and perhaps even share...

Saturday, April 8, 2017

Parchment from Salmon - Lachs Pergament

By now, everyone show know that I have a certain infatuation for working with fish leather. Part of the reason may be that it is so different and uncommon. A bigger reason may well be the connection to Ernst Collin and my project around his writings... I first wrote about the uses of fish in binding back in early 2014 - Something Fishy - Fish Leather for Binding - with subsequent posts showing my uses of the skins. Recently while looking through all my issues of Der Buchbinderlehrling (1927-43) I found a short article about "Fips" and the eel skin" in the volume for 1937. I've worked with eel leather (Very thin, but strong. Great for millimeter bindings), but this was the first article that described making parchment from a fish skin. The earlier articles were scant on the tanning/drying details. In his third year as an apprentice, "Fips" wanted to do something special for the binding on the Buchbinderlehrling he was going to enter into the annual bookbinding competition. So, he went next door to the fish monger and asked for a really big and fat eel, but without the meat, guts, bones... After some discussion, he got what he needed, scrubbed it clean in the courtyard of the shop (to the disgust of all), and tacked it to a board to "let the sun do the rest." It was that simple.

Inzwischen sollten alle wissen, daß ich so eine verspinnerte Vorliebe für die Verwendung von Fischleder... an Einbänden habe. Ein Grund mag sein, daß es so anders ist und von fast niemanden mehr verwendet wird. Der größere Grund mag die Verbindung zu Ernst Collin sein der bekanntlich einige Aufsätze über Fischleder in der Buchbinderei geschrieben hat. Ich habe über diese zuerst 2014 in dem Aufsatz Something Fishy - Fish Leather for Binding geschrieben mit weiteren Aufsätzen wo ich meine Anwendungen beschrieben habe. Neulich fand ich beim Durchblättern meiner Buchbinderlehrling Jahrgängen (1927-43) einen kurzen Aufsatz über "Fips" und die Aalhaut. Ich habe schon einig Male Aalhaut verwendet (sehr dünn, aber stark), ideal für Edelpappbände, aber dieser war der erste Aufsatz in dem beschrieben wurde wie aus Fischhaut Pergament gemacht wurde. In den meisten Aufsätzen die ich bis jetzt gesehen habe ging es eher ums Gerben, aber in allen Fällen mit wenigen Details. Als Lehrling im dritten Jahr wollte "Fips" sich etwas besonderes für seinen Einband vom Buchbinderlehrling für den jährlichen Lehrlingswettbewerb ausdenken. Aus verschiedenen Gründen kam er zur Aalhaut. Also, ab zum benachbarten Fischhändler. Ein ganz dicker sollte es sein, aber ohne Fleisch, Gräten, und Innereien... Die hat er von dem verdutztem Fischweib sogar kostenlos bekommen. Also zurück in den Betrieb um die Haut zu reinigen (zum Eckel aller) und aufzuspannen. So einfach war das.

"Fips" setting out his eel skin to dry in the sun.
"Fips" beim Aufspannen seiner Aalhäuten.

Judging by the picture in the article (above), perhaps the eels fattened themselves after the Battle of Jutland.

Dem Bild oben nach wurde sein Aal vielleicht von der Skagerrakschlacht so fett.

Friend and colleague Monica Langwe in Sweden sent me these pictures of fish parchment she had, so I now had a sense of what I was aiming towards. Nice to see the unique textures I was used to from working with fish leather in the parchment, too.

Meine Freundin und Kollegin Monica Langwe in Schweden schickte mir diese Bilder von Ihrer Fischpergmenthaut. Jetzt hatte ich eine Ahnung wie das Ganze aussehen sollte. Schön auch zu sehen, daß die eigenartige Oberflächenstruktur wie beim Leder erhalten ist.

Fish parchment detail | Fischpergament Detailansicht
View of overall skin | Gesamt Ansicht des Pergaments
So..., the other day my wife was pulling into a parking lot with our local seafood trucked parked in it. Among the mussels, clams, and scallops was a modest Atlantic salmon fillet with skin on. She knew about my crazy projects and wanted to provoke me into action. So, after eating clams and mussels, I got to work skinning the fish.

Also, vor einigen Tagen wurde das Auto meiner Frau in einen Parkplatz mit dem Laster vom Seefruchthändler versteuert... Unter den Muscheln und Jakobsmuscheln war auch eine bescheidene Seite atlantischen Lachs mit der Haut dran. Sie wusste von meinen verspinnerten Projekten und wollte mich sticheln... Also Muscheln gegessen, und dann ran die Arbeit den Lachs zu enthäuten...

Pulling the skin off.
Beim Enthäuten.

Almost done – I rewarded my helper with scraps of sashimi
Fast fertig –Meinen Helfer habe ich mit Sashimiresten gefüttert.

The skin being cleaned after removal.
Nach der Enthäutung fing die Reinigung an.

The skin was first washed and rinsed in very mild (useless) dish detergent
and water to remove oils and the scales that remained...
Die Haut wurde zuerst in sehr milder Geschirrspülseife und wasser gewaschen
zwecks entfettung und den Rest der Schuppen los zu bekommen.

Soaking for 2 days in kaolin clay to degrease further and aid in smell removal.
Die Haut wurde als nächstes für zwei Tage in einer Kaolin/Wasser Mischung gelegen
zwecks Entfettung und Geruchentfernung.

The skin stretched out to dry in the sun under tension, just like "Fips'" skin.
The Haut unter Spannung in die Sonne zwecks trocknung gelegt,
so wie "Fips" es auch gemacht hat.
In for the night, nice and taut. Will it pass the dog test, will Loki lick it?
Rein für die Nacht. Wird es das Schnüffeltest bestehen, wird Loki es lecken?

This morning I found several greasy spots that I cleaned, and then out in the sun it went again.

Sunday, November 13, 2016

Binding Ideas | Einband Ideen

Starting work on some bindings, mostly playing around with designs and texture/color combinations, but also doing real prep so I can hit the ground running...

For the Boss Dog's Three Lectures in the Eberhardtiana series...

Reddish Roma endpaper that matches headings in text with black fish and red eel.
I think I'll go with the black fish, and make more pastepapers...

Below, some ideas for paring fish with goat, a bibliophilic "surf n' turf," for the Boss Dog's edition of my Ernst Collin The Bone Folder. Printing is underway and there are exhibition deadlines coming up in the next 6-months ~ year... Want to have more than one appropriately bound. Why fish? It was something Collin wrote about.

Sunday, February 16, 2014

Something Fishy - Fish Leather for Binding

In 1919, after the end of World War I, there were severe shortages and civil unrest in Germany. This situation repeated itself after World War II. These shortages led to a high level of experimentation with ersatz (replacement/alternative) materials such as straw for paper and board, spun paper, ..., silk instead of linen for sewing thread, but also colored straw for inlays (Strohintarsien). Ernst Collin and others wrote articles on the subject in such periodicals as the Archiv für Buchgewerbe, the Buchbinderlehrling, and the Allgemeiner Anzeiger für Buchbindereien. This post is about one of those "ersatz" materials, fish leather.

In "Fischhaut zu Bucheinbänden" from the Archiv für Buchgewerbe ( Vol. 56, 1919) the bookbinder Franz Martini of Charlottenburg (Berlin) recounted a war experience in which he saw cod skins that had been pulled off the fish in a field kitchen in Belgium and discarded. Drawing on his experiences at the bindery of Lüderitz and Bauer, he examined the skins to ensure there were no cuts/tears, then carefully removed the scales and made parchment from them, using them to bind various such as military journals. Based on these experiments he deemed the fish parchment superior to calf or sheep for durability and working properties such as the ability to mold over raised cords without wrinkling.

Martini had the leather tested at the national testing center on the recommendation of Paul Kersten (Director of the School for Artistic Bookbinding in Berlin), and the Director of Royal Library of Berlin. The results of this testing were impressive, especially in terms of fold and tear strength where the fish parchment easily reached 50,000 double folds without damage.

Material: Fish skin (untanned), sheep parchment, calf parchment
Mittlere Reißlänge in mm = average breaking length in mm
Mittlere Dehnung in % = average stretching in %
Resistance to folding.

After these tests Martini also developed a way to tan these fish skins to leather, also taking out a "utility model" (Nr. 674 741), a more limited form of patent, on this invention. Below some images of bindings he  created with these tanned skins from the Archiv für Buchgewerbe. Obviously, fish skins are most suited to half/quarter bindings due to their shape... Images from Archiv für Buchgewerbe ( Vol. 56, 1919).

Half-leather extra binding with leather onlay and original pastepaper

Half-leather extra binding with leather onlay and original pastepaper

In the 1934 Allgemeiner Anzeiger für Buchbindereien (Vol 49, Nr 19), Ernst Collin wrote an article titled "Bucheinbände aus Fischhaut" ("Bookbindings in Fishleather") that described the process in more detail, illustrated with photographs by Ernst. Shown is the same Franz Martini as mentioned above demonstrating how to remove the skin from the fish and prepare it. Martini has been able to demonstrate the effectiveness of tanning fish on a variety of species including cod, halibut, shark, eel, and others. Ernst points out that one of the reasons fish leather is not common is that most consumers prefer to cook the fish with the skin on - he suggests wrapping in gauze for the same effect, the cooking method is not mentioned.

From "Bucheinbände aus Fischhaut"
Click to enlarge.

The article recaps an earlier article by Paul Kersten from the  1917 (Nr 7) Allgemeiner Anzeiger für Buchbindereien which was similar to the 1919 article mentioned above. Ernst's article also states that Martini's attempt to patent the process failed as it was not unique enough and had been described in earlier publications.

Ernst concludes by praising this material and encouraging the German fisheries to take advantage of the need for durable yet affordable native materials to help contribute to sustainability and German economic independence.

The 1938 volume of the Buchbinderlehrling, a periodical for apprentices, describes the manufacture of fish leather in the context of the 4-year plan to make Germany independent of imports, and increased rationing in advance of the looming war...

The fish were carefully skinned and then tanned in rotating drums using a vegetable tannage -  summach, dividivi, or willow. Unfortunately the tannins in most domestic plants were not effective enough. To dye the skins, aniline dyes and pigments (for darker colors) were used. Finally, the leather is pressed and glazed. Overall, these processes are identical to tanning other animal skins with an equivalent quality possible. Fish leather retains its flexibility and softness. It is also very resistant to tearing.

The article concludes by reminding the upcoming bookbinders that this is a material that they will need to become comfortable with, just as all other binding materials.

A final article on the subject from the 1946 (Nr 12) issue of the Allgemeiner Anzeiger für Buchbindereien leads with "Fish Leather Developed by Bookbinder." It recaps the articles mentioned above, and concludes by saying fish leather has established itself as a binding (and other leather trades) material, but no one remembers that a bookbinder first developed it.

Images of fish leathers below from my leather "stores." Of these the eel is the thinnest and smoothest by far, and only really useable on millimeter bindings, on small/light books, or for onlays. Almost no paring is required for use.

The other fish leathers, trout, salmon, cod, and carp are available glazed and suede. Paring is possible, but what I've found most effective is pasting out the back for dimensional stability and letting it dry on Mylar. Peel off and sand (a "micro" belt sander is great) with a little edge-paring. These leathers can easily be used as a structural element of the binding, just as any other leather - they're not just for onlays...

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

The dogfish/shark and stingray skins are very difficult to pare, the former being very rubbery - kills Scharfix blades, fast.  The stingray is very hard and best used as an in/onlay. Cutting with a knife also very difficult. Probably the reason I haven't used it yet. Abigail Bainbridge wrote a great description of working with shagreen for the West Dean College Current Projects blog.

Click to enlarge

Below examples of bindings using fish leather that I have made. Click image to enlarge.

On Søren Kierkegaard by Edward F. Mooney

Bound in salmon leather on spine with stained birch veneer covered boards; endpapers of handmade Roma paper; graphite top edge; leather endbands; title stamped in gold on front cover with goat leather onlays. Enclosed is cloth-covered slipcase. Bound 2013.

The Book of Origins – Le Livre des Origines, André Ricard, 2004

Modified Bradel binding (Gebrochener Rücken); textblock sewn on three slips of Cave Paper brown walnut dyed paper; endpapers of Cave Paper brown walnut dyed paper; gilt top edge; sewn silk endbands; Bradel case with 1/4 veined calf vellum spine and undyed goatskin sides; slips laced through at joint; decor of codfish leather onlay and blind tooling.
22.5 x 14.5 x 2.5 cm. Bound 2005. Collection of Karen Hanmer.

Gaylord Schanilec and Clarke Garry, Mayflies of the Driftless Region, Midnight Paper Sales Press, 2005

“Open joint” binding; sewn on 3 brown salmon leather slips; flyleaves and doublures of Cave Paper “layered indigo day” paper; graphite top edge; rolled endbands brown salmon leather; spine covered in gray salmon leather; boards covered in full vellum with printed illustrations from text below; salmon leather slips attached to boards and framed with decorative weathered wood veneer; tied mayfly attached to front board. 26.5 x 19 x 2 cm. Bound 2013.

Ladislav Hanka, Remembering Jan Sobota, 2013

Modified Bradel binding (Gebrochener Rücken); layered Indigo Night Cave Paper endpapers; sewn link stitch on 5 reinforced slips of same paper as ends; endbands of endpaper paper around core; spine covered in brown Kangaroo with cutouts to reveal slips and sewing; boards covered in brown tie-dyed Pergamena deer parchment; onlays of suede Salmon leather with fishing fly mounted into lacuna in parchment; title stamped in gold on front board. 33 x 25.4 x 1 cm.Bound 2013.